Hatzizacharias A. Makris T. Krespi P. Triposkiadis F. Voyatzi P. Dalianis N. Kyriakidis M. Intermittent milrinone effect on long-term hemodynamic profile in patients with severe congestive heart failure [see comments]. American Heart Journal. 1999;138(2 Pt 1):241-6.


    Because reports have suggested that intermittent milrinone infusion (IMI) may be efficacious in the management of end-stage congestive heart failure (CHF), the authors investigated the effectiveness of IMI in hospitalized patients with severe CHF undergoing long-term (4 months) post-therapy hemodynamics.  Thirty-six patients (28 men, 8 women; mean age 65.6 +/- 8.2 years old) with end-stage CHF (New York Heart Association functional class III-IV) were studied.  Each patient received 4 cycles of 3 days per week with milrinone therapy.  Each cycle consisted of a loading dose of 50 microgram/kg over 10 minutes and a 72-hour continuous infusion of 0.5 microgram/kg per minute under close monitoring.  Hemodynamic changes were determined during the first and fourth cycles and on 4-month reexamination.  Full clinical examination was performed at the beginning (baseline) and at the end of 4-month follow-up.  The values of mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and pulmonary vascular resistance were significantly decreased and cardiac index was significantly increased compared with the baseline of first and fourth cycles.  At the end of the 4-month follow-up period all hemodynamic parameters sustained the improvement. Clinical examination at the end of the 4-month period showed that 21 (58.3%) of 36 patients remained in New York Heart Association functional class IV but were hemodynamically improved, 13 (36.2%) of 36 were in functional class III, and 2 (5.5%) of 36 were in class II-III. There were no deaths during the study period.  The authors suggest that IMI in hospitalized patients with severe CHF is hemodynamically efficacious, and the beneficial hemodynamic effect is maintained for at least 4 months after discontinuation of therapy.  The authors suggest the promising results raised the possibility that given appropriately, milrinone may have an important role in end-stage CHF.