Lindsay CA. Barton P. Lawless S. Kitchen L. Zorka A. Garcia J. Kouatli A. Giroir B. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of milrinone lactate in pediatric patients with septic shock. Journal of Pediatrics. 1998;132(2):329-34.


    The authors determined the pharmacokinetics of milrinone lactate in pediatric patients with septic shock and to determine whether a relationship exists between steady-state plasma milrinone concentrations and changes in hemodynamic variables in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, interventional study. In study phase 1 patients were randomized and underwent loading and infusion with milrinone lactate (50 mcg/kg, then 0.5 mcg/kg/min), and invasive hemodynamic values were determined. Steady-state was determined by obtaining plasma samples at 30, 15, and 0 minutes before the end of the milrinone infusion.  Study phase 2 started when milrinone was discontinued by the patient care team. Steady-state was reaffirmed and plasma samples were obtained at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after the end of the infusion.
    RESULTS: The average plasma concentration at steady-state (Css avg) and total body clearance for phase 1 were 81.3+/-38.6 ng/ml (mean +/- SD) and 0.0106+/-0.0053 L/kg/min, respectively (n = 9). All but two patients underwent reloading with milrinone.  In phase 2 Css avg and total body clearance were 65.8+/-42.1 ng/ml and 0.0110+/-0.0096 L/kg/min, respectively (n = 11). The average time of infusion was 51+/-21 hours.  Eight patients were evaluated for phase 2 elimination.  The mean elimination rate constant was 0.0091+/-0.0061 min(-1) (n = 8).  The median half-life was 1.47 hours (range, 0.62 to 10.85 hours).  All patients had creatinine clearances greater than 61 ml/min/1.73 m2.  The volume of distribution at steady-state was 1.47+/-1.03 L/kg.  No correlation existed between age and the elimination rate constant or the volume of distribution at steady-state.  All patients achieved at least a 20% change in cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index while maintaining a Css avg of 35 to 160 ng/ml.  No adverse effects were noted.  All patients achieved primary hemodynamic end points (cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index) during the milrinone infusion.  The authors conclude that loading doses of 75 mcg/kg milrinone lactate and starting infusion rates of 0.75 to 1.0 mcg/kg/min for patients with normal renal function should be used; the infusion rate should then be titrated to effect.  The authors suggest that for every increase of 0.25 mcg/kg/min, a 25 mcg/kg bolus dose be given.  Because the median half-life is 1.47 hours, immediate hemodynamic effects may not be seen unless appropriate loading doses and infusion adjustments are made.