Mollhoff T. Loick HM. Van Aken H. Schmidt C. Rolf N. Tjan TD. Asfour B. Berendes E. Milrinone modulates endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and subsequent acute phase response after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Anesthesiology. 1999;90(1):72-80.


    Compromised splanchnic perfusion and the resulting intestinal mucosal injury leads to a decreased mucosal barrier function, which allows translocation of intestinal flora and endotoxemia. The authors evaluated the effects of milrinone on splanchnic oxygenation, systemic inflammation, and the subsequent acute-phase response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.  In an open, placebo-controlled randomized clinical study, 22 adult patients were enrolled in two groups. Before induction of anesthesia, baseline values were obtained and patients were randomized to receive milrinone (30 mcg/kg bolus administered progressively in 10 min, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.5 mcg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or saline.  The following parameters were determined: hemodynamics; systemic oxygen delivery and uptake; arterial, mixed venous and hepatic venous oxygen saturation; intramucosal pH (pHi); and mixed and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin 6, serum amyloid A, and C-reactive protein. Milrinone did not prevent gastrointestinal acidosis as measured by pHi, but its perioperative administration resulted in significantly higher pHi levels compared with control. Venous and hepatic venous endotoxin and the interleukin 6 concentration were reduced significantly in the milrinone group.  Serum amyloid A values were attenuated in the milrinone group 24 h after surgery.  No significant differences could be seen in routinely measured oxygen transport-derived variables.  The authors conclude that perioperative administration of low-dose milrinone may have antiinflammatory properties and may improve splanchnic perfusion in otherwise healthy patients undergoing routine coronary artery bypass grafting.